By Katherine King, Randy Young, Carrie Tournillon, and Mallory McKnight Fuller

This report was last updated on February 22, 2019

The following is prepared by the Kean Miller LLP Utilities Regulation team on important topics affecting consumers of electrical power in Louisiana.  For more information, please contact us at

(LPSC Rulemaking) New Generation Deactivation Transparency Rule:  In March 2017, the Louisiana Public Service Commission (“LPSC”) initiated a proceeding to consider (1) whether the LPSC should exercise its authority over future utility generation deactivation and retirement decisions and (2) the rules and procedures that could apply to the LPSC’s exercise of such authority.  In October 2018, the LPSC issued its final rule, which requires electric utilities to report generation unit deactivations and retirements 120 days prior to implementation, including support for the decisions and continuing reports on units that are placed in deactivation status for possible return in the future.  The final rule creates more transparency and accountability on the part of utilities.

Entergy Formula Rate Plan Extension:  In August 2017, Entergy Louisiana, LLC (“Entergy”) filed a request for an extension and modification of its Formula Rate Plan (“FRP”) for test years 2018, 2019, and 2020.  In May 2018, the LPSC approved an extension and modification of Entergy’s FRP subject to the settlement terms reached by Entergy, LPSC Staff, and intervenors.  The settlement terms included, among other things, the flow back to customers of all tax benefits created by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (“TCJA”).

Entergy Integrated Resource Plan:  In October 2017, Entergy initiated proceedings at the LPSC to begin work on its Integrated Resource Plan (“IRP”) for the years 2018 through 2038.  The objective of the IRP process is generally to evaluate a set of potential resource options that offer the most economical and reliable approach to satisfy future load requirements of the utility.  Entergy’s draft IRP was filed at the LPSC in October 2018.  The final IRP is due in May 2019.  The IRP process does not result in the LPSC’s approval of a proposed resource plan or approval of construction or acquisition of any particular resources.

Louisiana Electric Rates, Industrial Customer Market Access / New Tariff Options:  In April 2017, the LPSC initiated a technical conference series entitled “Status of Electric Rates in Louisiana: Where Are We and Where Are We Going?”  Through this series, the LPSC hoped to achieve its goal of ensuring reliable electric service at the lowest reasonable cost.  The technical conference series invited stakeholders to provide input on the status of electric rates in Louisiana and recommendations of policies or other options the LPSC should consider for the future.  The technical conferences were held in 2017.  In December 2018, LPSC Staff issued a report and request for comments.  A final report from LPSC Staff is expected in early 2019, which will be presented to the Commissioners for a determination regarding steps forward.

(LPSC Rulemaking) MISO Demand Response/ Aggregators of Retail Customers:  In July 2018, the LPSC opened a rulemaking to study the implications of participation of Aggregators of Retail Customers (“ARC”) in the wholesale markets and to determine whether, and under what conditions, such activity should be allowed in the LPSC’s jurisdiction.  ARCs enter into agreements with, and combine the abilities of, multiple retail electric customers to participate in wholesale markets as a Demand Response or Load Modifying Resource.  In September 2018, Commissioner Skrmetta issued a directive that third-party ARCs are not allowed to register LPSC-jurisdictional customers or participate in wholesale markets with their loads pending the outcome of the rulemaking.  In November 2018, LPSC Staff issued a proposed rule and request for comments from stakeholders, the deadline for which was December 2018.  No final rule has been issued as yet.

Entergy Proposed Solar PPA and Experimental Renewal Option (“ERO”) Tariff:  In May 2018, Entergy filed an application with the LPSC seeking approval to enter into a Purchase Power Agreement (“PPA”) for 50 megawatts (“MW”) of unit-contingent, as-available capacity and energy from a solar facility to be constructed in Port Allen, Louisiana.  The PPA arises out of Entergy’s 2016 Request for Proposals (“RFP”) for 200 MW of renewable resources.  A settlement has been reached by participants in the proceeding and will be presented to the LPSC for approval.  In October 2018, in connection with the PPA, Entergy filed a related application with the LPSC seeking authorization to make available a new Experimental Renewable Option and Rate Schedule ERO (“Schedule ERO”).  Schedule ERO would allow Industrial and Commercial customers the opportunity to schedule a portion of the Solar PPA.  Entergy’s Schedule ERO application is currently pending at the LPSC.

Entergy Generation Construction Projects:  In the past two years, the LPSC has approved Entergy proposals for large generation construction projects worth a combined estimated total greater than $2 billion.

Entergy 980 MW Power Plant in St. Charles Parish:  In November 2016, the LPSC approved Entergy’s proposal to construct a 980 MW CCGT unit located in Montz, Louisiana (near New Orleans), at a site adjacent to the existing Little Gypsy generation units.  The project was selected from among bidders in Entergy’s 2014 Request for Proposal (“RFP”) for resources in Amite South (southeast Louisiana area).  The project is estimated to cost $869 million and has a projected in-service date of June 2019.

Entergy 994 MW Power Station in Lake Charles, Louisiana:  In June 2017, the LPSC approved Entergy’s proposal to construct a 994 MW CCGT unit located in Westlake, Louisiana.  The project was selected from among bidders in Entergy’s 2015 RFP for Long-Term Development and Existing Capacity and Energy Resources.  The project is estimated to cost $872 million and has a projected substantial completion date of May 2020.

Entergy 361 MW Combustion Turbine in Washington Parish:  In May 2018, the LPSC approved Entergy’s acquisition of the Washington Parish Energy Center, a new 361 MW simple cycle combustion turbine (“CT”) to be constructed in Bogalusa, Louisiana by a subsidiary of Calpine Corporation (“Calpine”) for a purchase price of approximately $222 million.  Calpine had submitted an unsolicited offer to Entergy to construct the CT and sell it to Entergy for a turn-key price.  The acquisition and related assets is estimated to cost $261 million and has an estimated “turnover” date of April 2021 for delivery of a fully-permitted, fully operational facility.

Entergy Transmission Construction Projects:  The LPSC has also approved Entergy transmission construction projects worth an estimated combined total of more than $192 million, and Entergy recently submitted a new application for certification of an estimated $92 million transmission project.

Entergy Economic Transmission Project in Southeast Louisiana:  In December 2015, the LPSC approved Entergy’s proposal to build a portfolio of transmission projects in southeast Louisiana termed the Louisiana Economic Transmission Project (“LTEP”), which was identified in the MISO Transmission Expansion Plan (“MTEP”) 2015 as addressing congestion in southeast Louisiana at a cost below its estimated benefits.  Pursuant to Entergy’s January 2019 bi-annual report, the revised estimate for the total project cost is approximately $75 million.  The project is 100% complete and in-service.

Entergy Reliability Transmission Project in Lake Charles, Louisiana:  In December 2015, the LPSC approved Entergy’s proposal to build a portfolio of transmission projects termed the Lake Charles Transmission Project (“LCTP”) to meet reliability needs in the Lake Charles, Louisiana area.  The LCTP was submitted as an “out-of-cycle” project for the MTEP 2015 process and was approved by the MISO Board of Directors as a Baseline Reliability Project.  Pursuant to Entergy’s January 2019 bi-annual report, the revised estimate for the total project cost is greater than $187 million, and the estimated in-service date for the entire project is February 2019.

Entergy Economic Transmission Project in Downstream of Gypsy Area:  In November 2018, Entergy submitted an application to the LPSC for certification of a new transmission construction project located in the Downstream of Gypsy (“DSG”) area of southeast Louisiana.  As part of MTEP 2015, MISO identified the project as addressing congestion in southeast Louisiana at a cost below its estimated benefits.  The project is estimated to cost $92.3 million and has a projected in-service date of second quarter 2022.  The proceeding is in its early stages.

Cleco Power Application for Implementation of TCJA:  At the end of January 2019, in an ongoing proceeding, Cleco Power LLC (“Cleco Power”) filed an application with the LPSC seeking authorization to (1) implement rate reductions resulting from the TCJA, (2) modify certain tariffs in connection with the rate reductions, and (3) implement residential base revenue decoupling.  Cleco Power also requested expedited treatment so that its rate reductions can be implemented effective July 1, 2019.  The application is currently pending at the LPSC.

Cleco Cajun Acquisition of NRG South Central:  In April 2018, Cleco Power and its parent company, Cleco Corporate Holdings, LLC (“Cleco Corp”), filed an application at the LPSC requesting approval for Cleco Cajun, a wholesale subsidiary of Cleco Corp, to acquire NRG South Central Generating LLC, along with related generating units and wholesale sale contracts.  In January 2019, the LPSC approved the acquisition with the adoption of 59 Regulatory Commitments.

Cleco Natural Gas Hedging Proposals:  In August 2017, Cleco Power filed applications for natural gas hedging programs with the LPSC (a Long Term Derivative Hedging Program and a Physical Bilateral Hedging Program) pursuant to the LPSC’s General Order requiring each investor owned utility to bring forth three natural gas hedging programs for LPSC consideration.  In January 2019, Cleco Power filed a supplemental filing requesting that a hybrid of its two natural gas hedging programs be recognized as its third program under the LPSC General Order and that certain larger customers be allowed to opt-in to the long term hedging programs.  The supplemental filing is currently pending at the LPSC.

By Angela W. Adolph

The Internal Revenue Service (the “Service”) released a Private Letter Ruling (“PLR”) earlier this year addressing private business use of a mixed-use output facility and whether tax-exempt bonds could be used to finance improvements to the facility.  The Issuer, which is a political subdivision of a state, owns electric generation, transmission and distribution facilities that are managed by a non-governmental electric cooperative (“NGEC”) pursuant to several contractual arrangements.  Under a power sales contract, the Issuer has the right to schedule or take the portion of power generated by the facility equal to the percentage of the facility’s net rated capacity reserved by Issuer for that year.  If the Issuer does not schedule or take all the output from its reserved portion of the facility’s net rated capacity, it must offer the unused output to the NGEC before offering to third parties.   The governing body of the Issuer establishes and approves the rates for power produced from Issuer’s reserved net rated capacity of the facility and sold to the Issuer’s customers. Under an operating agreement with the NGEC, the Issuer reimburses the NGEC for its share of the actual and direct expenditures incurred by the NGEC in the operation and maintenance of the facility.  The Issuer’s share of expenses is determined by its reserved percentage of the facility’s net rated capacity.

The Issuer expects  to finance capital improvements to the facility, the costs for which will be allocated between the  Issuer and the NGEC on the basis of their respective reservations and allocations of the net rated capacity of the facility.  The Issuer intends to issue tax-exempt governmental bonds to finance its portion of the improvement costs.  The Issuer represents that, while the bonds are outstanding, it will (a) maintain its reserved net rated capacity and (b) take a sufficient amount of the total energy generated at the facility so that no more than 10% of the facility’s improvements that are to be financed with the bonds will used for private business use.

The Service first considered whether the facility constitutes public utility property under Section 168(i)(10) of the Code.  “Public utility property” means property used predominantly in the trade or business of the furnishing or sale of electrical energy (among other things) if the rates for such furnishing or sale have been established or approved by a state or political subdivision thereof.  Because the facility consists of property used predominantly in the trade or business of furnishing or sale of electricity and the Issuer establishes and approves rates for electricity provided by the Issuer from its reserved share of the net rated capacity of the facility, then, to the extent of such share, the facility constitutes public utility property. 

Under the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 2002-2 C.B. 685 (the “Advance Notice”), tax-exempt  bonds may be issued to finance costs attributable to the government use portion of a mixed-use output facility, plus any costs attributable to permitted de minimis private business use.  The government use portion is determined based on the percentage of the available output of the facility that is not used for a private business use.  The available output is determined by multiplying the number of units produced or to be produced by the facility in one year by the number of years in the measurement period of that facility for that bond issue.    The number of units produced or to be produced in one year is determined by reference to nameplate capacity or its equivalent, which is not reduced for reserves, maintenance or other unutilized capacity.  See Treas. Reg. Sec. 1.141-6 and 7.

The Service noted that the allocation of output based upon reserved net rated capacity under the power sales contract is the equivalent of an allocation based on available output of the facility.  Thus, the government use portion of the facility consists of the Issuer’s portion of the net rated capacity of the facility less the NGEC’s purchases of non-scheduled or taken output and any other private business use.  Therefore, the Issuer may issue bonds in an amount to cover the costs of the government use portion of the facility and its improvements plus any costs attributed to permitted de minimis private business use.

Additionally, since only actual and direct expenses incurred in the operation and maintenance of the Issuer’s share of the facility are payable to the NGEC for its management of such share under the operating agreement, the operating agreement is not treated as a management contract that results in private business use by the NGEC.  See Treas. Reg. Sec. 1.141-3.



by Gordon D. Polozola

The Louisiana Supreme Court issued a unanimous decision clearing the way for the City of Lafayette to issue bonds to finance its Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTP) Project. As described by the Court, FTTH technology delivers telecommunications services via fiber optic cables to every home and business in the covered area. In contrast, a more traditional system delivers services to a distant point, with the remaining distance to each home and business being covered by technically inferior and bandwidth-limiting copper (telephone) wires. The decision ends eighteen months of litigation, starting after the citizens of Lafayette voted 62% to 38% in a July 16, 2005 election to issue up to $125 million in bonds for the Project. Project opponents filing suit to block the bond issuance included the incumbent cable and telephone companies, as well as two Lafayette residents. For additional news articles relating to the decision, see and  

Continue Reading Louisiana Supreme Court Approves Lafayette’s Fiber-to-the-Home Bond Ordinance

by Lawrence J. Hand, Jr.

On November 17, 2006, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit vacated the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission’s Standards of Conduct as applied to interstate natural gas pipelines. These Standards of Conduct, which are set forth in Order No. 2004 and codified at 18 CFR Part 358, govern the relationship between an interstate natural gas pipeline and various affiliates. The Court found that FERC’s effort to expand the pre-existing standards of conduct beyond relationships between an interstate natural gas pipeline and its marketing affiliates was not supported by record evidence. It is not clear if or when the Commission will revisit Order 2004 and how it will attempt to address the infirmities cited by the Court. It is worth noting that the current Chairman of the Commission, Joseph Kelliher, issued a strong dissent when Order 2004 was originally enacted and argued in favor of keeping the Standards of Conduct applicable only to marketing affiliates of interstate pipelines.

Continue Reading D.C. Court of Appeals Vacates FERC Standards of Conduct for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

by Gordon D. Polozola

The Louisiana Supreme Court has affirmed an order of the Louisiana Public Service Commission establishing a state universal service fee for telecommunications service providers operating in the state. T-Mobile, a wireless provider operating in Louisiana, appealed the LPSC’s order, arguing that the USF fee constituted a tax and, thus, the LPSC lacked jurisdictional authority to mandate the charge. The Supreme Court disagreed, finding that the charge constituted a fee, not a tax, and that the LPSC had the jurisdiction to impose a USF fee under both the Telecommunications Act of 1996, and the Louisiana Constitution.  A copy of the decision is available at the following link:

by Gordon D. Polozola

Governor Kathleen Blanco has reportedly vetoed the controversial Competitive Cable and Video Services Act, House Bill 699. There has been significant disagreement between BellSouth, the proponent of the bill, cable providers, who appeared to turn neutral as to its passage after the bill was amended, and Parish presidents and mayors, who urged the Governor to veto the bill. Of particular concern was the lack of any requirements for telecommunications companies to provide service to consumers in rural and poor neighborhoods, which cable providers typically must do under current franchise agreements. Local officials also argued that the bill would reduce or eliminate local governments’ authority to manage their rights-of-way. Under Louisiana law, a bill vetoed by the Governor must subsequently be approved in a veto session by two-thirds of the elected members of both the House and Senate to become law. The bill originally passed both houses by a two-thirds vote before being sent to the Governor. For recent new articles regarding this matter, visit  and

by Gordon D. Polozola

To say there has been consolidation in the telecom market over the last decade would obviously be an understatement. Competitive telecom companies, which entered the market by the hundreds after passage of the federal Telecommunications Act, have merged with each other (or have been acquired) as a means of survival or market penetration. The (then) giants of the telecom world have also consolidated into mega-regional communications companies. SBC acquired Pacific Telesis, Southern New England Telephone, Ameritech (which itself acquired Illinois Bell, Indiana Bell, Michigan Bell, Ohio Bell and Wisconsin Bell), and most recently AT&T. The new AT&T became the largest telecom company in the U.S. Now it is proposing to acquire BellSouth, currently the third largest telecom company in the U.S. (For more information on the history of telecom mergers, visit

Continue Reading Deja Vu? — Courts, Telecom and Anti-Trust