Employer compliance with the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has been among the EEOC’s top enforcement priorities under the Trump Administration. And a string of recent enforcement actions brought by the EEOC makes clear that the Agency will continue to be aggressive with respect to how employers manage employee return to work issues. On June 6, 2018 the EEOC announced its entry of a $3.5 million consent decree against Dotty’s, a Las Vegas slot machine tavern operator, because the Agency found its return to work policies, which included a “100% healed” requirement, violated the ADA.
As most employers are aware, the 2008 amendments to the ADA greatly expanded the definition of what is considered a protected “disability.” As a result of this expansion, many injuries (whether suffered on or off the job) and illnesses that result in employee medical leaves of absence are the result of underlying conditions that may arguably qualify as a protected “disability” for ADA purposes – even where the condition is not permanent.
In many cases, an employee on medical leave of absence may be given a release to return to work with some restrictions (such a limits on lifting, maximum number of work hours, or other physical activities, like climbing). A key requirement of the ADA is that employers provide “reasonable accommodation” to an employee with a disability that will allow the employee to perform the essential functions of the job. That might require the employer to make modifications to the workplace or to re-assign non-essential job duties to other employees. What is a “reasonable” accommodation will depend upon the facts of each situation, but the ADA makes clear that an employer is required to engage in an interactive dialogue with the employee to determine what is reasonable under the circumstances.
In the return to work context, some employers have taken the position that an employee must be “100%,” or released to return to work “without restriction” before the employer will permit the employee to return to active employment. The reasoning of such employers is often out of concern that an employee who is less than fully recovered from an earlier injury or illness poses an increased threat to the health and safety of the employee and his co-workers. Notwithstanding these concerns, the EEOC’s longstanding position is that these kinds of policies are unlawful because they are inconsistent with the interactive reasonable accommodation dialogue that is at the heart of the ADA. According to EEOC guidance regarding employer-provided leave, “An employer will violate the ADA if it requires an employee with a disability to have no medical restrictions — that is, be “100%” healed or recovered — if the employee can perform her job with or without reasonable accommodation…” Federal courts, including the Fifth Circuit, have likewise found return to work with “no restrictions” policies to be unlawful.
In addition to requiring the employer to discontinue these practices and assessing $3.5 million in monetary relief for the benefit of the affected employees, the consent decree also requires the employer to coordinate with the EEOC regarding re-employment opportunities for employees, to develop effective workplace disability leave policies, to engage a consultant to monitor its compliance with the terms of the consent decree and to provide ADA training to its employees and supervisors.
The EEOC has sued other employers in a string of cases that have ended with similar consent decrees that included substantial monetary awards to the affected employees: Lowe’s Company ($8.5 million); American Airlines ($9.8 million) and United Parcel Services ($1.7 million).
In a press release announcing the Dotty’s consent decree, the EEOC said the suit was filed as part of the Commission’s continuing “quest to identify and eradicate systemic disability discrimination.” The message from these EEOC enforcement actions is clear – ADA and return to work issues are a priority enforcement concern for the Agency, and employers should take the time to review their medical leave and return to work policies and practices to ensure they are ADA compliant.