In this day and age, everyone communicates by e-mail, on a laptop, desktop, Blackberry or other electronic device. But what about communication between a physician and a patient?

Is this permissible? Acceptable under existing law and practice? Recommended?


Obviously, any form of communication between a physician and a patient is allowed. So, if you wish to discuss with a patient their history, your impressions, diagnosis, prognosis or other issues relating to evaluation and treatment, you may. However, this form of communication carries with it certain special rules and requirements. Which leads us to our second question.


Any communication by a physician with a patient should be documented. In the olden days, this may have involved a small spiral notebook with entries made from phone calls received at home and later placed in the patient’s office chart. Now, in the era of electronic communication, the initial consideration is how will this “e-mail” be stored or maintained. Will a copy of the e-mail be printed and placed in the patient’s chart? Will electronic folders for each individual patient be created? Will a dedicated hard drive and back-up system be implemented? There are any number of alternatives in this regard. The bottom line is that an e-mail from the physician to a patient which relates, in any material way, to treatment should be available for review by others involved in the patient’s care and preserved as a contemporaneous documentation of the physician’s evaluation/thought process.

Perhaps, more importantly is that under existing law, in legal cases and in the potential for litigation, there is a duty to preserve electronic data. Accordingly, in the event a physician elects to communicate electronically with a patient, to any degree, about treatment, and that treatment becomes the subject of a medical malpractice claim or lawsuit, then there is an underlying duty to preserve such electronic communications that may have relevance to the litigation. Even more problematic is that this duty to preserve electronic data arises at the time a physician has some “notice” of the potential for a malpractice claim to be filed. Under those circumstances, the physician would have a duty to place a “legal hold” on any electronic data that was created in connection with the patient’s care and treatment. For example, if test results were communicated electronically to a patient, then these e-mails documenting the lab results being sent to the patient would need to be preserved. If the electronic communication was sent by other staff members in a physician’s office, then the physician or office administrator, under existing rules, should notify all such involved parties of the responsibility to preserve the electronic data, known as a “legal hold”.

In the extreme, in a situation in which the physician was unable to locate and produce electronic data upon which that physician relied for the appropriateness of the medical treatment at issue, then there could be evidentiary presumptions against the physician for failing to preserve the electronic data. There also are sanctions for mishandling discovery of electronic data which can be significant. These can involve monetary fines, and even adverse inferences in instructions to juries. Additionally, reconstruction or recovery of electronic data can be expensive and time-consuming.


Electronic medical records systems will continue to develop. The future is electronic medical records and the future is now. However, until these systems are developed and become more of a generally accepted manner of medical practice, it is recommended that electronic communication with patients be kept to a minimum or not employed, unless and until the physician or physician group has a complete system in place to store, save, back-up and search all electronic data related to patient communications. At the very least, the physician or practice manager should consult with information technology and support personnel to best manage this potential exposure.